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Peach

Specifications

Scientific name: Prunus persica L. Batsh
Popular name: peach
Botanical family: Rosaceae.
General characteristics: the peach is originally from China, being one of the first fruits introduced by the Portuguese in Brazil, having been cultivated commercially only in the 20th century, with the obtaining and introduction of varieties adapted here, which shows the importance of agricultural research. Currently, it is produced in SP, SC, PR, MG and RS, the largest national producer. The industry consumes up to 43% of the production and the market to the natural, another 57% on average. It is one of the most important fruits of temperate climate in the country. The peaches sold are of many varieties, with high quality and some with good post-harvest conservation. Its fruit, of the drupa type, has a stone, or seed, varying its shape, size and color, beyond the type, ie for industry or consumption to the natural. The production season of the national varieties goes from September to February. The pulp is very tasty, tender in some varieties, with typical flavor and aroma, being firmer in imported varieties. Brazil still imports peaches to supply the lack of fruit during the period without national production.

Blooming peach trees and, on the right, peach tree in detail (Photos: Denise Gomes D’Oliveira Ludwig)
Varieties: the main table varieties on the domestic market have white pulp, sweet-acid flavor and reddish-pink skin. The main varieties are Chimarrita, Chiripá, Douradão, Marli, Aurora, Dourado and Joia. The national varieties are offered from mid-September-October to January, while the imported varieties, from November to March and in lower volume in mid-year.
Source: DONADIO, L.C.; ZACCARO, R.P. Fruit nutritional value

NUTRITIONAL VALUE

The Aurora variety is the most used for industry and has, on average, 36 kcal; 0,8 g of protein; 9,3 g of carbohydrate; 1,4 g of fibers, and is rich in minerals, among which the potassium.
Minerals – Potassium, with up to 190 mg: phosphorus, with only 15-20 mg; calcium, with 6 mg; iron, with 0.2 mg; and magnesium, with 9.7 mg.
Vitamins – It has from low to medium content of vitamin C, with 6 mg, and high of vitamin A, with up to 375 IU. It still has 40 mcg of thiamine (B1); 65 mcg of riboflavin (B2); 0,95 mg of niacin (B3); 0,06 mg of vitamin E ; and 2,62 mg of vitamin K.
Source: DONADIO,L.C.; ZACCARO, R.P. Fruit nutritional value

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
Originally from China, although before the 19th century many believed it came from Persia – hence the name Prunus persica – the peach tree was one of the species of temperate climate that spread most rapidly around the world. In China, where there are reports of wild peach trees dating from 6000 to 7000 BC, the peach tree is considered a symbol of longevity. Few fruit species have adapted to such diverse climatic situations as this even in areas of latitudes as low as 18 – 20 degrees. At high altitudes (over 2,800 m) this species is cultivated even in Central America, Ecuador. In Brazil, the peach tree was introduced in 1532 by Martim Afonso de Souza in the Capitania of São Vicente, today São Paulo state. Nowadays, it is cultivated in the South and Southeast of the country, with great results as long as cultivars adapted to local conditions are used, accompanied by adequate soil and plant management. In this context it is important to emphasize the importance of a good start of the orchard, which implies seedlings with genetic suitability and high health. The quality of the seedling is not only seen externally. There are internal factors (not visually observed) that can bring serious damage to the orchard, such as some viruses and viroids and even bacteria. The rootstock roots are of great importance and should be free of nematoids, fungi and have a development compatible with the canopy. This emphasizes the need for the acquisition of seedlings to be suitable nurserymen, registered in the MAPA and therefore follow the current legislation for marketing quality seedlings. (Maria do Carmo Bassols Raseira – Embrapa Climate Teperado Researcher)
The main research actions with this species involve the creation and adaptation of cultivars that are resistant to diseases, produce quality fruit and meet the taste of the consumer in relation to the color of the epidermis, balance acidity / sugar and size, and present resistance to transport and storage. The peach has a short storage period, no more than thirty days, so all care should be taken regarding damage caused by pests, diseases and during transport. It is recommended to harvest the peach directly in the box (Prof. Dr. JOSÉ CARLOS FACHINELLO, Full Professor. Department of Phytotechny FAEM/UFPEL. Pelotas,RS)