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Scientific name: Punica granatum L.
Popular name: pomegranate
Botanical family: Punicaceae
ORIGIN AND DISPERSION
Native to Persia, she was domesticated in Iran about 2,000 years before Christ. In the Mediterranean she became a fruit of some interest long ago. From there it was distributed to other countries in Asia to the Americas. Another species is known, but without edible fruits.
CLIMATE AND SOIL
It is a plant that adapts to tropical and subtropical climates, even in the semi-arid ones.
It is propagated by seeds, but as it has cross-pollination, it can give different types. Vegetative propagation by woody cuttings is easy, as well as by Alporachi.
There are many improved cultivars.
The fruit can be eaten naturally, as juices and jellies or in a wine called “grenadine”. There is a syrup made from the juice. As the skin contains 30% tannin, it can be used to enjoy leather. It has therapeutic properties and is used in popular medicine.
More complete information can be found in the book Exotic Fruits (Funep, FCAV/Unesp).
The pomegranate juice contains water, sugars such as glucose and fructose, organic acids, proteins, mineral salts and vitamins in small amounts and makes up to 45 to 65% of the fruit weight.
A beneficial attribute of pomegranate juice is its antioxidant effect, by the phenolic compounds and polyphenols and tannins in its sugars, with medicinal effects.
The acidity varies from 0.5 to 3%, and the total soluble solids vary from 10 to 14 oBrix.
Vitamins – It has from 8 to 14 mg of vitamin C/100 g; carotene – 0,03-0,09 mg; B1 – 0,01-0,7 mg; B3 – 0,3-0,9 mg.
Minerals – Calcium – 3-14 mg; phosphorus – 8-70 mg; iron – 0.3-1.0 mg; sodium – 4-7 mg; potassium – 133-379 mg.
Several pigments give color to the fruit, with a small percentage of tannin that gives it its bitter taste.
The seeds contain up to 15% oil, of good value, and saturated fats are, on average, 8%, monounsaturated 10% and acids, with up to 7%.
Source: DONADIO, L.C.; ZACCARO, R.P. Fruit nutritional value.
“The pomegranate tree is grown to use its fruit, which can be consumed as dessert or can be processed into juice, grenadine liquor or wine. In India, pomegranate is more consumed as a table fruit, while in Iran and the United States much of it is processed. The juice is an excellent aperitif. The peel of the fruit contains about 30% tannin that can be used in leather tanning, alone or mixed with synthetic tannin. In fact, the pomegranate was already used in the past in Morocco for this. The pomegranate fruit is also valuable in pharmacology for its medicinal properties” (G. N. MOHAN KUMAR; Pomegranate, in the book Fruits of Tropical and Subtropical Origin, 1999).
Translated with www.DeepL.com/Translator (free version)